Percutaneous septal ablation or septal alcoholization

Invasive technique alternative to myectomy to reduce the thickness of the interventricular septum in the subaortic area in patients with obstructive HCM. It is carried out, by means of an arterial catheter, by injecting a small quantity of alcohol (1-2 cc) into the coronary septal branch which supplies blood to the area where the hypertrophy is localized.


Chest pain that usually occurs with exertion and lessens or disappears with rest. It can also appear at rest in the CM. It results from insufficient quality of oxygen supplied to the heart muscle (ischemia).


It is done with a cardiac catheterization. It allows to visualize the cardiac cavities, through the injection of a special liquid.


Medicines that reduce blood clotting. It should be used when there is a risk of thrombus formation, eg. when atrial fibrillation is present. There are drugs to be taken by mouth "Oral anticoagulants"And drugs to be taken with subcutaneous or intravenous injections (Heparin)


The main blood vessel exiting the left ventricle (VS) and carries blood from the heart to all organs through and other arteries.

Apical (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy)

The hypertrophy is mostly localized at the apex, that is, at the tip of the VS


Abnormal rhythm, i.e. irregular heartbeat. It can cause symptoms such as palpitations.

There are many types, simple (eg extrasystoles) and more complex (atrial fibrillation and flutter, Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation, etc.).

Cardiac arrest (AC)

It means that the heart no longer contracts and therefore after 5-6 seconds it causes a loss of consciousness. It can happen if the normal electrical signal is not generated (Asystole) or because the signal arrives at ventricles  in a chaotic, uncoordinated way (Ventricular fibrillation). THE'cardiac arrest can be solved with the maneuvers of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (heart massage) and a Automated External Defibrillator (DAE) which can restore normal rhythm.

Prothrombin activity (INR)

Evaluate blood clotting, which is necessary to decide on the correct dose of anti-coagulant Vitamin K drugs (eg "Coumadi" or "Sintrom").


Cavities of the heart, right and left, which receive blood from the veins. Through the valves, Tricuspid right and Mitral on the left, the blood then passes into the right and left ventricles


When the heart rate is less than 60 per minute.


It is used for any disease of the cardiac muscle: "Cardio" refers to the heart and "myopathy" means muscle disease.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (CMD)

A form of cardiomyopathy in which dilation of the heart cavities prevails while the muscle thickness is normal or reduced.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (CMR)

A form of cardiomyopathy in which the ventricular cavities are small and the amount of blood they can receive is small.

Electrical cardioversion

Applying an electric shock to the chest in order to restore sinus rhythm, e.g., in anarrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation. It is performed with transient anesthesia.

Cardiac catheterization

It examines and records the pressures existing within the heart cavities. It consists of inserting a very thin tube (catheter) into a vein or artery, which is pushed up to the heart.


Adjective indicating the visit, instrumental examinations, research, etc. involving patients.


It is done with a cardiac catheterization, injecting a liquid into the mouth of the coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle). Allows you to evaluate any anomalies or if these are partially obstructed (stenosis) or totally (occlusion).

Chromosome  View Geni
Implantable Defibrillator (ICD)

It is a device capable of automatically recognizing and interrupting arrhythmia ventricular (sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation), which can cause cardiac arrest and sudden death by emitting an electrical shock, which reaches directly to the heart. It can be inserted under the collarbone with one or two leads reaching the heart (Transvenous ICD) and can also stimulate it (pacemakers) or under the left armpit with a thread that remains under the skin (Subcutaneous ICD)


Drugs that increase urine production and the release of accumulated fluids.

Dynamic ECG (Holter)

Tool that allows continuous recording of theECG in one's environment (home, work, during physical activity), of varying duration, usually for 24 hours, but also 48 or even more. Helps to evaluate the arrhythmia and may also be useful for documenting episodes of myocardial ischaemia.

Echocardiogram - Cardiac Echocolordoppler (ECO)

It is a fundamental examination in the evaluation of Cardiomyopathies. It uses the ultrasounds that, emitted by the probe, are reflected by the heart and by the vessels, are processed by a processor to form an image of the heart, the vessels and the blood flows inside them.

The analysis Doppler of flows measures the speed and direction of blood through the valves, and the filling of the heart cavities. The Color Doppler it is a color-coded image of the blood flow in the heart and vessels. Through the Tissue Doppler (TDI, Strain) evaluates the speed of contraction and relaxation of the heart walls.


Dislocation of a mass (usually a thrombus) or air (gas embolism) through the vessels (veins or arteries) from one organ to another (e.g. from the veins to the lungs: pulmonary embolism; from the left atrium to the brain: brain embolism; in the kidneys: renal embolism).


Infection usually bacterial, heart valves or implanted devices and their leads (Pacemakers or Defibrillators)


It means that a disease is passed on in a family from one generation to the next, often with varying degrees of severity.

Atrial fibrillation (AF)

Arrhythmia originating in the atrium. It can cause a high heart rate and can be manifested by palpitations, difficulty in breathing and reduced exercise tolerance. Very rarely it may have no symptoms (e.g. short-term or nocturnal episodes)

Ventricular fibrillation (VF)

The electrical activation of the ventricles is chaotic and results in cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness and, if not promptly stopped, sudden death.

Genes and chromosomes

Genes are portions of DNA, the program that allows you to build all the tissues of the body in a precise order. Each individual has over 25000 genes, grouped together called structures chromosomes. Each individual has 23 pairs of chromosomes, half from the mother and half from the father. In men, one of the chromosomes is missing a part (Y chromosome).


Difference in pressure recorded between 2 heart cavities (eg between ventricle and aorta).


Suffering of an organ (e.g. heart, brain, etc.) due to insufficient oxygen supply.


Swelling of any tissue. Here it means enlargement of the heart muscle.

If the thickening of the heart walls is uniform, it is said Concentric. If the thickness of the walls, eg. of the Left ventricle, it is different, it is said Asymmetrical.

Myocardial malalignment

When examining the hypertrophic muscle under a microscope, the heart cells are not aligned.


Surgical operation that is performed in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A portion of the hypertrophic muscle is removed to clear the obstruction in the outflow tract, that is, under the aortic valve, in order to normalize the output of blood from the heart.


Special muscle tissue that forms the walls of the heart.


Protein of the heart muscle cell, necessary for normal contraction of the walls. Its alteration, due to a genetic mutation in the gene that produces it, is a frequent cause of Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is therefore defined "sarcomeric". Some mutations can cause one instead Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Anterior systolic movement of the mitral valve (SAM)

In about 30% of patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, during the expulsion of blood from the left ventricle towards the aorta, the mitral valve moves abnormally into the blood outflow channel, and contributes to the obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract

Pacemaker (PM)

If the normal electrical signal is not generated and does not arrive in the right time from the atria to the ventricles, implantation of one is indicated. Artificial stimulator (pacemaker). Under the skin of the chest, a small box is implanted containing a battery connected to a thin metal wire which, through the veins, reaches the heart. The battery emits electrical impulses that stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract.


It is an uncomfortable feeling of the heartbeat. The palpitation may be due to a normal heartbeat made more evident by anxiety, emotion or exertion. It is often a symptom caused by aarrhythmia.


Which arises for a limited period of time and spontaneously ceases.


Expresses the likelihood of developing the genetic disease.

Antibiotic prophylaxis

To prevent endocarditis, it may be useful to administer an antibiotic, before surgical or dental maneuvers, to patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or in those with cardiomyopathy who have diabetes and / or renal insufficiency.

Myosin binding protein C

(See definition Myosin).

Atrial natriuretic peptides (ProBNP-BNP)

They are small substances produced by the atrial walls, usually increased in patients with cardiomyopathy. Patients with heart failure have higher values. However, each patient has his own values, which, if they increase, indicate a worsening of the state of compensation

Myocardial scintigraphy

Test that allows to visualize the passage of a weakly radioactive substance or its accumulation (eg bone tracer for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis due to Transthyretin). They can be used to accurately calculate the maximum blood flow in different areas of the left ventricle after the injection of a drug  (PET Dipyridamole)

Heart failure

Condition in which the heart is no longer able to maintain a pumping action sufficient to satisfy the needs of the organism. It manifests itself with extreme weakness, difficulty in breathing, reduced exercise tolerance, edema (accumulation of fluids, for example, in the legs). It is one of the complications of heart disease. If treated properly, it can regress. A picture of "cardiac compensation" is re-established, in which the pumping action of the heart is again sufficient to satisfy the needs of the organism.

Interventricular septum

The wall that divides the ventricle right to left. In Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,hypertrophy it is usually more pronounced in the septum.


The murmur is caused by turbulent flow as it passes through heart valves or narrow-section vessels

Electro-physiological study

In this examination, leads are introduced into the heart as in cardiac catheterization. These can record the electrical activity of the heart either under normal conditions or after drug injection or after sending programmed electrical impulses to the heart walls (atrial or ventricular pacing).


When the heart rate is over 100 per minute.

Ventricular tachycardia

A type of arrhythmia with a very fast heartbeat that results in moles ventricles, to be stopped as soon as possible. Needs careful evaluation and care or a procedure ablation

Stress test

Fitness for exercise can be tested using a treadmill or a special bicycle (cycle ergometer). During the exercise test a doctor and a nurse monitor the patient's symptoms,ECG, blood pressure.

Outflow tract of a left ventricle

Small area of ​​the heart through which blood passes from ventricle to the aorta; it is often restricted in Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.


Solid mass consisting of the aggregation of blood and fibrin, which forms in the veins or in the heart cavities in certain conditions (eg. atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, phlebitis). It can be of various sizes and cause an embolism, that is, displaced in another organ (eg lung, brain).


(See definition Myosin). It is also a protein (Troponin I or T.) which is used to diagnose myocardial infarction, because it is released from cells that do not receive sufficient oxygen (ischemia). In cardiomyopathy it can be modestly elevated, however lower than the levels observed in patients with myocardial infarction


The main pumps of the heart, one on the right side and one on the left side. The left ventricle is the main pump part of the heart. Both can be altered in cardiomyopathies.